Abbreviations & Definitions
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R of T  Range of tide 
R&CC  Riots and civil commotion 
R&L  Rail and lake 
R&O  Rail and ocean 
R+M/2  A misleading, but popular, expression of (R+M)2. See antiknock index. 
R.D. or RD  Running days 
R.S.V.P.  Repondez, s'il vous plait (Please reply) 
R/E  Rate of exchange 
R/P  Return to Port (for orders) 
R/T  Round trip or Radio Telephone or Rye Terms 
R/T or RT  Revenue ton 
R/V OR RND  Round voyage 
R/V or RND or RV  Round voyage 
RA  Receivers' approval 
RAC  Response Action Contractor 
Rack blending  The practice of adding one or more components to a gasoline blend at an inland distribution terminal. Frequently, due to logistics, this type of blending occurs at the end of the distribution line. For instance, a supplier will add ethanol to finished gasoline while loading delivery trucks for shipment to retail outlets. This method of blending prevents ethanol, which has an affinity for water, from separating from the gasoline blend (phase separation) during transportation through a pipeline system. 
Rack price  The truckload price charged by a supplier to customers which buy motor gasoline on an FOB terminal basis. 
Radar Platform  A platform for operating radar equipment from 
Radio Station Vessel  A vessel specifically adapted for used as a radio broadcasting station 
Radioactivity  The property of some substances to emit invisible and potentially harmful radiation. 
Raffinate  What remains of a reformate or pyrolysis gasoline stream after aromatics extraction. These paraffinic, naphtha-range mixtures usually have too low an octane rating for use in motor gasoline, but good properties for steam cracking. Butylene streams produced by ethylene plants also go by the name raffinate, or raff. 
Rag Top  A slang term for an open–top trailer or container with a tarpaulin cover. 
Rail Division  The amount of money an ocean carrier pays to the railroad for overland carriage. 
Rail Grounding  The time that the container was discharged (grounded) from the train. 
Rail Vehicles Carrier  A single or multi deck cargo ship with rails for the carriage of rail vehicles which are loaded via ramps 
Ramp  Railroad terminal where containers are received or delivered and trains loaded or discharged. Original- ly, trailers moved onto the rearmost flatcar via a ramp and driven into position in a technique known as “circus loading.” Most modern rail facilities use lifting equipment to position containers onto the flatcars. 
Ramp–to–Door  A movement where the load initiates at an origin rail ramp and terminates at a consignee’s door. 
Ramp–to–Ramp  A movement of equipment from an origin rail ramp to a destination rail ramp only. 
Ramsbottom carbon  A measurement of hydrocarbon mixtures' tendency to leave carbon deposits (coke) when burned as fuel or subjected to intense heat in a processing unit such as a catalytic cracker. See CONRADSON CARBON. 
Rancidity  Rancidity is the development of off-odours and off-flavour in edible oils and fats or manufactured food products caused by oxidative deterioration. Primary oxidation products are odourless and tasteless but certain secondary decomposition products have particularly potent off-flavours and are detected by the palate at extremely low concentrations. 
Rapeseed Oil  The oil obtained from the seeds of ""Brassica Napus"" and ""Brassica Campestris"". In common with other brassica oils such as mustard oils, rapeseed has a high content of erucic acid. Since this was found to have some adverse nutritional effects in animal feeding trials, breeding research has succeeded in producing low erucic or zero erucic acid oils. In addition, rapeseed oil contains sulphur containing chemicals which cause difficulty in processing. These have also been removed by breeding. The importance of rapeseed oil is that the crop can be grown in northerly climates such as Sweden, Germany, Poland and Canada, where other oilseeds crops do not succeed. 
RAPL  Rotterdam - Amsterdam Pipeline 
Rate Basis  A formula of the specific factors or elements that control the making of a rate. A rate can be based on any number of factors (i.e., weight, measure, equipment type, package, box, etc.). 
Rateably  On a rateable basis. The industry uses this expression for paced delivery of product. Crude, for instance, can move from buyer to seller at some speed like a thousand barrels per day. The idea applies most naturally to pipeline-carried commodities. 
Raw Materials  The primary raw materials of the oleochemicals industry are tall oil, tallow, coconut oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil and canola oil. 
RBAY  Richards Bay 
RBCT  Richards Bay Coal Terminal 
RBD  Refined, Bleached and Deodorised Oil. The initial letters of the words Refined, Bleached and Deodorised are used as a quality description of a fully processed oil. In Malaysia, RBD is used for a physically refined oil. After transport, RBD oils have to be re-refined before using them in the final food product. 
RC  Refrigerated Container or Running Costs 
RC&L  Rail, canal and lake 
RCC&S  Riots, civil commotion and strikes 
RCM  Rail to Center Manifold 
RCN  Research octane number 
RCP  Federal Region Oil & Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan 
RCRA  Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 
RCVD  Received 
RCVR  Receivers 
RD  Road or Running Days 
RDC  Running down clause 
RDLY  Redelivery 
RDLY or REDEL or REDELY or REDLY  Redelivery; Re-delivery of Vessel on Time Charter 
RDR  Radar 
Rds  Roads 
RE.  Relating (to) or with Reference (to) 
Reachable on arrival  REACHABLE ON ARRIVAL shall mean that the charterer undertakes that an available loading or discharging Berth be provided to the Vessel on arrival at the Port which the Vessel can reach safely without delay. 
Reaction with Oxygen  Tank Cleaning: Drying and semi-drying vegetable and animal oils react with oxygen to form a varnish-like polymeric film. This is very difficult to remove from the bulkheads etc. Since heat increases the reaction speed the initial washing of these products must be done with water at ambient temperature without any delay after unloading the cargo. 
Reaction with water  Tank Cleaning: Isocyanates must never come into contact with water, not even the residues, because the reaction product and insoluble urethane (plus CO2) are very difficult to remove. Such products must be washed with a suitable solvent, that does not contain any water. 
Reaction with water hardness compounds   Tank Cleaning: Water hardness is formed by the calcium and magnesium content of the water. Sea water has a very high water hardness. Some products like fatty acids and vegetable oils with a high free fatty acid content will form white sticky residues, if they are cleaned with a water of a high water hardness (e.g. sea water). 
Reactivity  A description of the tendency of a substance to undergo chemical reaction with the release of energy. Undesirable effects such as pressure build-up, temperature increase, formation of noxious, toxic, or corrosive byproducts may occur because of the reactivity of a substance by heating, burning, direct contact with other materials, or other conditions in use or in storage.  
Realization  Evaluation based on theoretical (often negotiated) estimates of how much money a refiner or petrochemicals producer can make by processing a feedstock. Many netback deals price oil according to a formula which considers the quantity and spot value of products made from it and the cost of processing. These transactions have a realization basis. 
Reasonableness  Under ICC and common law, the requirement that a rate not be higher than is necessary to reimburse the carrier for the actual cost of transporting the traffic and allow a fair profit. 
Rebate  An illegal form of discounting or refunding that has the net effect of lowering the tariff price. See also Malpractice. 
REC  Received 
Recap  Recapitulation 
Reconsignment  Changing the consignee or destination on a bill of lading while shipment is still in transit. Diversion has substantially the same meaning. 
Recourse  A right claim against the guarantors of a loan or draft or bill of exchange. 
Recovery Package  Advanced equipment package for secure recovery of refrigerants. Satisfies all relevant marine regulations 
Red Label  A label required on shipments of flammable articles. 
REDEL  Re-Delivery 
Redox Potential  A measure of the oxidizing ability of a solution. A solution with a high redox potential has a high oxidizing ability 
Reduced crude  Atmospheric fuel oil. See ATMOSPHERIC RESIDUE. 
Redwood viscosity  A method of measuring and reporting viscosity which lost popularity in recent years. Tables available from various sources convert Redwood figures to the more widely used Kinematic and Saybolt scales. 
REEF  Refrigerated 
REEFER  Refrigerated container 
Reefer Vessel  Vessel with refrigerated cargo hold(s) 
REF  Reference 
REFG  Refrige-rating/-rated/-ration 
Refined Sugar Carrier  A single deck cargo vessel for the carriage of refined sugar. Sugar is loaded in bulk and bagged in transit (BIBO - Bulk In - Bag Out) 
Refinery intermediate  see INTERMEDIATE 
Refining  Processing and manufacturing of petroleum products out of crude oil and other hydrocarbons. Refining begins with simple distillation, and then additional processes are done to minimize the production of heavier/lower value products, such as residual fuel oil, in favor of lighter/higher value products such as gasoline. 
Refining Factor  The refining factor is used to monitor product losses in the refinery. It is defined as the ratio of percent loss to percent FFA, corrected for moisture and impurities. A refining factor can be calculated for one or more processing stages. 
Refining Loss  The loss from the original quantity of crude oil resulting from various refining processes. This loss varies considerably depending on the free acid content of the oil, other substances removed during refining and the method of refining. 
Reformate  The product of a catalytic reformer. An aromatics-rich high-octane motor or aviation gasoline blendstock. Many refineries route a part of the reformate they produce through aromatics extraction units to recover the benzene, toluene, and xylenes it contains. 
Reformer  A catalytic processing unit which produces a highly aromatic stream (reformate) used primarily as high-octane blendstock. 
Reforming  The thermal or catalytic conversion of petroleum naphtha into more volatile products of higher octane number. It represents the total effect of numerous simultaneous reactions such as cracking, polymerization, dehydrogenation, and isomerisation. 
Reforming Naphtha  see NAPHTHENIC NAPHTHA 
Refractive Index  The velocity of light changes as it travels from one medium to another and the light is then said to have undergone refraction. In effect, the rays of light are bent at the interface between the two media. The refractive index of a substance is the ratio of the velocity of light in a vacuum to the velocity of light in the substance. For practical measurement, air is used as the reference rather than vacuum. For oils and liquid fats, AOCS Method Cc 7-25 is used to measure the refractive index. 
Refrigerants  Used in refrigeration and freezing plants 
Refrigerated Cargo Ship   A multi deck cargo ship for the carriage of refrigerated cargo at various temperatures 
Refrigerated liquid  See Cryogenic liquid 
REG  Regarding 
Reg (EC) 2037/2000  EU regulation covering ozone-depleting substances which seeks to protect the ozone layer 
Regasification  Process that occurs after LNG has been shipped and transferred to a storage tank. It is then warmed to convert it back into natural gas for distribution via pressurized pipeline to residential, commercial and industrial users. 
Regional Bulk Sizes  Kamsarmax, with a maximum length of 229 meters, the maximum length that can load in the port of Kamsar in the Republic of Guinea. Other terms such as Seawaymax, Setouchmax, Dunkirkmax, and Newcastlemax also appear in regional trade. 
REL  Recommended Exposure Limit. The highest allowable air concentration that will not injure a person. 
Related Points  A group of points to which rates are made the same as or in relation to rates to other points in group. 
Relative Density  See Specific Gravity 
Relay  To transfer containers from one ship to another when both vessels are controlled by the same network (carrier) manager. 
Relet  A ship offered for hire by its time-charterer. Large international oil companies, because they take far more tankers on a period basis than anyone else, engage in reletting most frequently. 
RELET  To sub-charter 
REM  Remit 
Remittance  Funds sent by one person to another as payment. 
Rendering  The process of separating animal fat from tissue and cellular structure by the application of heat, pressure, solvent or a combination of these. 
REP  Representative 
Repair Vessel, Naval Auxiliary  A naval auxiliary vessel for general work and repair operations 
Replenishment Dry Cargo Vessel  A naval auxiliary vessel for homogenous dry cargo 
Replenishment Tanker  A naval auxiliary vessel. Designed for fuel, lubricants & general stores for transfer to warships at sea. 
Reproductive toxicity  Capable of causing injury to the male or female reproductive system, causing an interference with propagation of the species 
REQ  Require 
Res  IMO Assembly Resolution 
Research Survey Vessel  A vessel equipped for research and/or survey (e.g. geophysical, hydrographic) 
Research Vessel, Naval Auxiliary  A research vessel for Naval support 
Research, Inland Waterways  A vessel designed for research. Not designed for operation in open sea 
Reserves  Reservoirs of oil and gas considered to be economically and operationally feasible to extract and refine. 
Resid  Abbreviation of residue. 
Residue  The bottoms taken from distillation units. Both atmospheric and vacuum stills yield a residue. The industry sometimes uses "bottoms" to designate this unboiled material. Atmospheric residue can undergo further distillation in a vacuum unit. Heavy fuel oil blending absorbs much of the vacuum residue produced; although some serves as feedstock for coking, asphalt manufacture, and other upgrading processes. 
Resin  Any natural or synthetic organic compound consisting of a non-crystalline or viscous liquid substance. Natural resins are organic substances that are transparent or translucent, formed in plant secretions. Synthetic resins comprise a large class of synthetic products that have some of the physical properties of natural resins but are different chemically. Most synthetic resins are polymers. The term resin dates from the early years of the plastics industry; it originally referred to naturally occurring amorphous solids such as shellac and rosin. See also plastics. 
Responsible Care  Responsible Care is the chemical industry's commitment to continuous improvement in all aspects of health, safety and environment performance and to openness in communication about its activities and achievements.  
Restaurant Vessel, Stationary  A stationary vessel used as a floating restaurant. 
Restricted Articles  Articles handled only under certain conditions. 
REV  Reversible 
Revenue Ton (RT)  A ton on which the shipment is freighted. If cargo is rated as weight or measure (W/M), whichever produces the highest revenue will be considered the revenue ton.Weights are based on metric tons and measures are based on cubic meters.RT=1 MT or 1 CBM. 
Reverse IPI  An inland point provided by an all–water carrier’s through bill of lading in the U.S. by first discharging the container in an East Coast port. 
Reversible  Detention. If loading completed sooner than expected at load port, then days saved can be added to discharge operations. 
REVERSIBLE (Detention)  If loading completed sooner than expected at load port, then days saved can be added to discharge operations 
Reversible Laytime  REVERSIBLE LAYTIME shall mean an option given to the charterer to add together the time allowed for loading and discharging. Where the option is exercised the effect is the same as a total time being specified to cover both operations. 
RFP  Request for Proposal 
RFQ  Request for quotation. 
RG  Range 
RGDS  Regards 
RGE  Range 
RGE or RNG  Range 
RI or RINA  Registro Italiano Navale 
RIC  Reading in Copy 
Ricinoleic Acid  Ricinoleic acid, whose systematic name is 12-hydroxyleic acid, is found in high degree in castor oil. The oil, ricinoleic acid, or its derivatives, are important to the cosmetics and lubricants industries. 
Righting Moment  Ship Stability: The product of the weight of the vessel(displacement) and the righting arm(GZ) 
RightShip  RightShip is a boutique ship vetting specialist, promoting safety and efficiency in the global maritime industry, including drybulk.  
RINA  Registro Italiano 
Risk  Risk should be clearly distinguished from hazard. Risk is the chance that a given hazardous effect will occur. The use of fire by humans is an example of optimizing the balance between hazard and risk, as fire, being extremely hazardous, must be used under carefully controlled conditions to keep risks to a minimum. 
Risk Assessment  Substances on European priority lists must undergo an in-depth risk assessment covering the risks posed by the priority chemical to man (covering workers, consumers and man exposed via the environment) and the environment (covering the terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric eco-systems and accumulation through the food chain). This risk assessment follows the framework set out in European Commission Regulation (EC) 1488/94 and implemented in the detailed Technical Guidance Documents (TGD) on Risk Assessment for New and Existing Substances. The first draft of the risk assessment reports are written by the Member States which act as "rapporteurs". The Commission mediates the meetings, which attempt to reach consensus on the conclusions of the risk assessments. For more information, see the Chemicals Management section. 
RIT  Refining in transit 
RM  Engine room platform (OCIMF acronym) 
RMO  Regional Marine Operations 
RMRGC  Recommendations for Manifolds of Refrigerated for Gas Carriers for Cargoes 
RNR  Rate not reported 
RO  Registered office 
RO  Registered office 
RO-RO  Roll-On/Roll-Off 
Ro-Ro Cargo Ship  A single or multi deck cargo ship for the carriage of laden vehicles which are loaded via ramps 
Ro-Ro Cargo Ship, Inland Waterways  A vessel designed for the transportation of Ro-Ro Cargo. Not designed for operation in open sea 
Ro/Ro  A shortening of the term, “Roll On/Roll Off.” A method of ocean cargo service using a vessel with ramps which allows wheeled vehicles to be loaded and discharged without cranes. Also refers to any specialized vessel designed to carry Ro/Ro cargo. 
Roads  Anchorage Area 
ROB  Remaining on board. The volume of cargo, usually expressed in barrels or cubic meters, left on board a tankship at a particular point of a voyage. Final ROB volumes after the completion of discharge, if too high (& deemed pumpable IAW C/P terms), can result in cargo claims from the charterer to the shipowner. 
ROC  Reference Our Cable....(date) 
Rocket Launch Support Ship  A vessel equipped to transport rocket sections to isolated launch sites 
ROCKPHOS  Phosphate Rock 
ROI  Return on Investment 
Roll  To re–book cargo to a later vessel. 
Roll-on/Roll-off vessels  Ships specially designed to carry wheeled containers or trailers using interior ramps. Includes all forms of car and truck carriers. 
Roll–on/Roll–off vessels  Ships specially designed to carry wheeled containers or trail- ers using interior ramps. 
Rolling  Ship Stability: is when the vessel rotates about the longitudinal (front/back) axis 
Rolling  The side–to–side (athwartship) motion of a vessel. 
RON (Research Octane Number)  A rating of the anti-knock properties of a finished motor gasoline or blendstock. The test to determine RON stimulates mild engine operating conditions such as motoring at moderate speeds. The RON method yields higher numbers than the MON (motor octane number) test which reflects heavy loads and high speeds. 
RORO  Roll On/Roll Off 
RoRo Barge  The Roll On/Roll Off, or RO/RO barge is a deck barge with multiple decks that can accommodate enormous numbers of containers, trailers, or rail cars, allowing them to be wheeled directly onto or off the barge. 
ROT  Residual Oil Tank 
ROTLX  Reference Our TeLeX ...(date) 
ROTT  Rotterdam 
Route  The manner in which a shipment moves; i.e., the carriers handling it and the points at which the carriers interchange. 
RP  River Plate or Return Premium 
RPM  Revolutions Per Minute or Rotations Per Minute 
RPS  Revolutions (or rotations) per second 
RPT  Repeat 
RQRD  Required 
RRT  Regional Response Team 
RS  Register of Shipping of the Russia or Rupees (currency of India) 
RS&CC  Riots, strikes and civil commotions 
RSO  Recognized Security Organization 
RT  Revenue Tonne or Right Time (of ship departure/arrival) 
RT43  Measure for capacity by a car which is 4.125 m long, 1.550 m wide and 1.420 m high 
RTBA  Rate to be agreed 
RTD  Round trip distance 
Rubber  Synthetic rubber, as opposed to natural rubber (obtained from the exudations of certain tropical trees), is derived from petroleum and natural gas. Because of its elasticity, resilience, and toughness, rubber is the basic constituent of the tires used in automotive vehicles, aircraft, and bicycles. Rubber is also used in electrical insulation, and because it is waterproof, it is a favored material for shoe soles. 
Rummage Sale  From the French "arrimage" meaning ship's cargo. Damaged cargo was sold at a rummage sale. 
Running Days or Consecutive Days  RUNNING DAYS or CONSECUTIVE DAYS shall mean Days which follow one immediately after the other. 
Running Gear  Complementary equipment for terminal and over–the–road handling containers. 
Running Hours or Consecutive Hours  RUNNING HOURS or CONSECUTIVE HOURS shall mean hours which follow one immediately after the other. 
RVNX  Released Value Not Exceeding: Usually used to limit the value of goods transported. The limitation refers to carrier liability when paying a claim for lost or damaged goods. 
RVP  Reid Vapor Pressure. Absolute pressure exerted by the gas produced by evaporation from the liquid, as measured by Reid apparatus under the specific conditions of test temperature, vapor/liquid ratio and air saturation. 
RVP  Reid vapor pressure. A measure of the volatility of hydrocarbons. The Reid test can measure volatility at any practical temperature. A testing temperature must accompany any RVP report to make it most informative. Ordinarily, the feedstock and petroleum products trade uses RVP numbers measured at 100F. 
RX  Receiver (radio) 
RYC  Reference Your Cable...(date) 
RYTLX  Reference Your TeLeX...(date)