Abbreviations & Definitions
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Centigrade (Degrees centigrade) 
C and/or J  China and/or Japan 
C of B  Centre of Buoyancy 
C ORE 7  Ore charter party 
C&F  Cost & Freight 
C&F FO  Cost & Freight Free Out 
C&F or CFR  Cost and Freight (named port of destination)
Seller must pay the costs and freight to bring the goods to the port of destination. However, risk is transferred to the buyer once the goods are loaded on the vessel (this rule is new!). Maritime transport only and Insurance for the goods is NOT included. This term is formerly known as CNF (C&F).

The four rules defined by Incoterms 2010 for international trade where transportation is entirely conducted by water are: FAS, FOB, CFR, CIF 
C&F Terms of Sale, or INCOTERMS  Obsolete, although heavily used, term of sale meaning “cargo and freight” whereby Seller pays for cost of goods and freight charges up to destination port. In July, 1990 the International Chamber of Commerce replaced C&F with CFR. 
C.A.S. Number  Chemical Abstracts Service, a service of the American Chemical Society, identifies particular chemicals with a number. 
C.I.S  Commonwealth Independent States (ex Soviet Republics) 
C/C  sshinC/sshinC 
C/E/V  Communication/Entertainment/Victualling 
C/N  Credit Note 
C/P (CP)  charterparty 
C/S or CST  Centistokes 
C/V or CVS  Consecutive voyages 
C/V/E  Cable, victuals and entertainment 
C/X  sshinC / ssheX 
C–TPAT (Customs–Trade Partnership Against Terrorism)  A voluntary supply chain security partnership established by U.S. Customs and Border Protection in November 2001. Meeting the C–TPAT standards allows cargo owners faster processing through cus- toms formalities and inspections. 
C4  C4 derivatives are among the main olefin products coming from the steam cracker, along with ethylene and propylene. Butadiene is the most valuable product from the C4 fraction. 
CA  Condition of Authorities 
CABAF  Currency and Bunker Adjustment Factor 
Cable Layer  A vessel equipped to lay and repair underwater cables  
Cable Repair Ship  A vessel equipped for the retrieval and repair of underwater cables 
Cabotage  Refers to the coastal trades of a particular nation. Cabotage is often governed by statutes requiring that only ships flying the flag of the coastal state concerned may engage in the coastal trades between ports of that state, unless "waivers" are obtained from the government of the state. In the United States, this means that the vessels must be built (primarily) in the United States, fly the U.S. flag and be crewed by American nationals. 
Cabotage Fleet  see Fleet, Cabotage. 
Cadet  A student who is training to be a marine officer. 
CAF  Currency adjustment factor 
Calendar Day  CALENDAR DAY shall mean a period of twenty-four (24) consecutive hours running from 0000 hours to 2400 hours. Any part of a Calendar Day shall be counted pro-rata. 
Call  this denotes when a ship is coming to visit a port and berth 
Call Sign  Unique sequence of letters and numbers assigned to a ship for identification and communication purposes. 
CALM  Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring 
CALM Buoy  Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring Buoy - Simple system to which a tanker moors and then either loads or discharges its cargo. Buoy is moored by chains anchored to the seabed. 
CAN  Calcium ammonium nitrate (cargo) 
CANCL  Cancelling 
CAP  CAP (Condition Assessment Programme).- Independent and thorough scheme of inspections of the actual condition of a vessel. It is applicable as established in the present Rules and procedures and as defined in the Rules of the Classification Societies members of IACS. 
Capesize  Capesize vessels are typically above 150,000 long tons deadweight (DWT). Capesize ships are cargo ships originally too large to transit the Suez Canal (i.e., larger than both Panamax and Suezmax vessels). To travel between oceans, such vessels used to have to pass either the Cape of Good Hope or Cape Horn. 
Capesize Vessel  A dry bulk vessel above 80,000dwt or whose beam precludes passage via the Panama Canal and thus forces them to pass around Cape Horn or the Cape of Good Hope. 
Caprolactam  One of the ingredients that are used to synthesize the most common nylon. Caprolactam is made from phenol. 
Caprolactam Tanker  A tanker for the bulk carriage of caprolactam, a chemical used in the plastics industry for the production of polyamides 
Captain’s Protest  A document prepared by the captain of a vessel on arriving at port; shows conditions encountered during voyage, generally for the purpose of relieving ship owner of any loss to cargo and shifting responsibility for reimbursement to the insurance company. 
Car Carrier  A vehicles carrier for the carriage of new cars which are loaded via ramps 
CAR or CARIB  Caribbean Islands 
Car Park  A vessel used as a floating car park. 
Car Pooling  Use of individual carrier/rail equipment through a central agency for the benefit of carriers and ship- pers. 
Car Seal  Metal strip and lead fastener used for locking freight car or truck doors. Seals are numbered for record purposes. 
Carbohydrate  Any member of a very abundant and widespread class of natural organic substances, compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, that includes the sugars, starch, and cellulose. 
Carbon  An element forming a large number of compounds, many of which have important uses. Diamond and graphite are amongst the main forms of carbon. Coals are elemental carbon mixed with varying amounts of carbon compounds; coke and charcoal are nearly pure carbon. All organic compounds, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, contain carbon, and all plant and animal cells consist of carbon compounds and their polymers. 
Carbon residue  The solid, impure carbon deposits (coke) left behind by burned hydrocarbon fuels. The industry uses two tests, Conradson carbon (Con Carbon) and Ramsbottom carbon to measure oils' tendency to form such solids. 
Carcinogen  A substance or physical agent that is capable of causing cancer. For the purposes of classification by the GESAMP experts they are subdivided into the following three categories Animal Carcinogen- a substance that has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals, but for which there is no evidence that the substance can cause cancer in humans Human carcinogen- a substance for which there is a documented credible evidence that the material causes cancer in humans Epigenetic Carcinogen- a substance capable for causing cancer by mechanisms not involving direct interaction with genetic material 
Carfloat  A barge equipped with tracks on which up to approximately 12 railroad cars are moved in harbors or inland waterways. 
Cargo  Freight loaded into a ship. 
Cargo Manifest  A manifest that lists all cargo carried on a specific vessel voyage. 
Cargo NOS  Cargo Not Otherwise Specified. Usually the rate entry in a tariff that can apply to commodities not covered under a specific item or sub– item in the applicable tariff. 
Cargo Preference  Cargo reserved by a Nation’s laws for transportation only on vessels registered in that Nation.Typically the cargo is moving due to a direct or indirect support or activity of the Government. 
Cargo Tonnage  Most ocean freight is billed on the basis of weight or measurement tons (W/M). Weight tons can be expressed in short tons of 2000 pounds, long tons of 2240 pounds or metric tons of 1000 kilos (2204.62 pounds). Measurement tons are usually expressed as cargo measurement of 40 cubic feet (1.12 meters) or cubic meters (35.3 cubic feet.) 
Caribbean Trading Area  is the area bounded by the east coasts of North, Central and South America; and a line from the east coast of the United States in latitude 32 o 30'N to a point 20oN: 60 o W, thence to a point 10oN : 50 oW , and thence south to the coast of South America. 
Carload Rate  A rate applicable to a carload of goods. 
Carnet  A customs document permitting the holder to temporarily carry or send merchandise into certain for- eign countries (for display, demonstration or similar purposes) without paying duties or posting bonds. Any of various Customs documents required for crossing some international borders. 
Carotene  A natural constituent which gives crude palm oil its bright orange-red colour and which is normally destroyed by the high temperatures in the refining and/or deodorisation processes. It is also partially destroyed by oxidation under adverse conditions of production, storage and transport of crude palm oil. This may result in a deteriorated crude that is difficult to bleach during refining. Carotene is often added back to manufactured food products to colour them for customer appeal. Physiologically carotene has Vitamin A activity. In view of this, some palm oil processors are now modifying their processors to produce refined, deodorised palm oil products with high residual levels of B-carotene; these still being bright orange/red in colour. Chemically, carotene is a conjugated poly-unsaturated hydrocarbon which, together with related carotenoid compounds, may be estimated using a spectrophotometer to measure light absorbence at the wavelength of 446 nm. 
Carrier  Any person or entity who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of carriage by rail, road, sea, air, inland waterway or by a combination of such modes. 
Carrier’s Certificate  A certificate required by U.S. Customs to release cargo properly to the correct party. 
Cartage  Usually refers to intra–city hauling on drays or trucks. Same as drayage. 
Cartment  Customs form permitting in–bond cargo to be moved from one location to another under Customs control, within the same Customs district. Usually in motor carrier’s possession while draying cargo. 
CAS  Condition Assessment Survey 
Cash Against Documents (CAD)  Method of payment for goods in which documents transferring title are given the buyer upon payment of cash to an intermediary acting for the seller, usually a commission house. 
Cash in Advance (CIA)  A method of payment for goods in which the buyer pays the seller in advance of the shipment of goods. Usually employed when the goods, such as specialized machinery, are built to order. 
Cash With Order (CWO)  A method of payment for goods in which cash is paid at the time of order and the transaction becomes binding on both buyer and seller. 
Casino, Stationary  A stationary vessel fitted out as a floating casino. 
Castor Oik  Oil from Ricinus communis produced mainly in India, Brazil and China. Castor oil differs from all other common oils in being rich (~90%) in the hydroxyl acid, ricinoleic. Castor oil is a source of several important oleochemicals including Turkey-red oil, 12-hydroxystearic acid, dehydrated castor oil, heptanal, 10-undeconoic acid, 2-octanol and sebacic acid. 
Cat gasoline  The motor fuel-blending component produced by catalytic cracking units. 
Cat naphtha  see CAT GASOLINE. Some refiners could, if their markets made it desirable, hydrotreat cat gasoline to make a naphtha suitable for some use other than motor fuel blending, such as steam cracker feedstock. 
Catalyst  A catalyst is a substance which, when added to the components of a chemical reaction, speeds up the rate of that reaction but does not itself become involved chemically. An example of such compounds in the edible oil context is nickel used in hydrogenation. 
Catalytic cracker  These refinery units, also widely known as cat crackers and FCC's (for fluid catalytic crackers) or FCCU's, convert heavy distillate, most commonly vacuum gasoil, to lighter fractions. Refiners use them, basically, to break molecules which boil in the heavy distillate range to shorter, more volatile hydrocarbon chains suitable for making motor gasoline. 
Catalytic cracking  The process of breaking up heavier hydrocarbon molecules into lighter hydrocarbon fractions by use of heat and catalysts. See also cracking. 
Catfeed  The charge fed to a catalytic cracker. Common usage generally restricts this term to describing vacuum gasoils 
Cathode  Electrode at which the cathodic reaction predominates 
Cathodic Protection  Electrochemical protection achieved by decreasing the corrosion potential to a level at which the corrosion rate of the metal is significantly reduced 
Caustic  NaOH = Sodium hydroxide. A corrosive substance due to its high pH 
CB & H Cont.  (BH) Continent between Bordeaux and Hamburg 
CBFS  Carbon black feed stock 
CBFT  Cubic Feet 
CBFT or CF or CFT or CUFT or FT3  Cubic feet 
CBFT or CFT  Cubic Feet 
CBL  Cable 
CBM  Cubic meters 
CBM or CUM or M3  Cubic Meter 
CBS  Cyprus Bureau of Shipping 
CBT  Clean Ballast Tanks: Applies only to Pre-MARPOL vessels which adopted COW instead of converting to SBT when MARPOL 73/78 entered into Force. When operating as a "Products" tanker (typically with Fuel Oil), COW is not available so vessel adopts "CBT" mod 
CC  Condition of Class 
CC/HR  Cubic centimeter per hour 
CC/MIN  Cubic centimeter per minute 
CCC  Communist Controlled Countries or Customs Cooperation Council 
CCC Mark  A mark or label indicating the cargo conforms to standards required by China for certain products. 
CCP  Clean Petroleum Products 
CCR  Cargo Control Room 
CCTV  Closed Circuit Television 
CD  Chart Datum; Customary Despatch 
CDI  Chemical distribute Institute: A chemical industry ship inspection process and database. Managed through joint representation by charterers and ship managers. 
CE  Consumption Entry: The process of declaring the importation of foreign–made goods for use in the United States. 
CE Mark  A mark or label indicating the cargo conforms to standards required by the European Union for certain products. 
Ce Ta  Center Tank 
CEFIC  European Chemical Industry Council 
CEIBOIS  European Confederation of Wood Industries 
Cells  The construction system employed in container vessels; permits ship containers to be stowed in a vertical line with each container supporting the one above it 
Cement Carrier  A single deck cargo vessel fitted with pumping arrangements for the carriage of cement in bulk. There are no weather deck hatches. May be self discharging 
Cement Storage Barge, non propelled  A barge with pumping facilities for loading & discharging cement. 
CENSA  Council of European National Shipowners Associations 
Center of Gravity  The point of equilibrium of the total weight of a containership, truck, train or a piece of cargo. 
Centigrade degrees (C)  Also known as Celsius degrees. A temperature scale according to which water boils at 100 and freezes at 0. Centigrade, or Celsius, degrees convert to Fahrenheit degrees by the following formula: (C x 1.8) + 32=F. 
Centistoke  The unit, commonly abbreviated cSt, of kinematic viscosity which reports a liquid's resistance to flow in terms of its measured viscosity divided by its density. 
Centrifuging  Substances having different densities will separate by gravity. For example, oil is lighter than water and easily forms a separate upper layer. The effect of gravity can be accentuated by increasing the strength of the gravitational force, for example by spinning at high speed within the inner rotating parts of centrifuge machines. Centrifuging is often used in oil mills for the separation of impurities and water from the oils, in alkali refining to remove soap and water washes and in fractionation, using detergent solutions, to separate wetted fatty crystals from the liquid olein, etc. 
CEPE  European Council of the Paint, Printing Ink and Artists' Colors Industry, an association affiliated to Cefic. 
Certificate of Inspection  – A document certifying that merchandise (such as perishable goods) was in good condition immediately prior to its shipment.
– The document issued by the U.S. Coast Guard certifying an American
– Flag vessel’s compliance with applicable laws and regulations. 
Certificate of Origin  A certified document showing the origin of goods; used in international commerce. 
CES  Centre Européen des Silicones 
Cetan rating  see CETANE NUMBER 
Cetane index (CI)  An estimated diesel fuel performance rating which relies on samples' API gravity and mid-point CI=-420.34 + 0.016G2 + 0192G log M + 65.01 (LOG M)2-0.0001809M2 where G= API gravity and M=mid-point in F 
Cetane number  A performance indicator for diesel fuel analogous to the octane rating applied to gasolines. The more paraffinic the gasoil, the higher its cetane number. 
CF  Cubic feet 
CF/H  Cubic feet per hour 
CFC  Chloro/Fluoro Compound 
CFG  Cubic feet of gas 
CFG  China Focus Group 
CFG/D  Cubic feet of gas per day 
CFG/H  Cubic feet of gas per hour 
CFG/M  Cubic feet of gas per minute 
CFR  Code of Federal Regulations (USCG) 
CFR  Cost and Freight (named port of destination) Seller must pay the costs and freight to bring the goods to the port of destination. However, risk is transferred to the buyer once the goods are loaded on the vessel (this rule is new!). Maritime transport only and Insurance for the goods is NOT included. This term is formerly known as CNF (C&F). The four rules defined by Incoterms 2010 for international trade where transportation is entirely conducted by water are: FAS, FOB, CFR, CIF  
CFR (Cost and Freight) (...Named Port of Destination)  A Term of Sale where the seller pays the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destina- tion, Terms of Sale but the risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as (continued) well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time the goods have been delivered on board the vessel, is transferred from the seller to the buyer when the goods pass the ship’s rail in the port of shipment. The CFR term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. 
CFS  Container freight station 
CFS  Cubic Feet per Second or Container Freight Station 
CGO  Cargo 
CH  Chain locker (OCIMF acronym) 
CH & H  Continent between Le Havre and Hamburg 
CHA  Customs house agent 
CHABE  Charterer’s agents both ends 
Chains  This terms has a chemical and commercial usage in the oil business. It describes the strands of carbon atoms (carbon chains) fundamental to hydrocarbon molecules. It also serves as a designation for the strings of transactions assembled to settle a 
Channel  a natural or man-made deeper course through a reef, bar, bay, or any shallow body of water, often used by ships. 
Charge  see Feedstock 
Charter Party  A written contract between the owner of a vessel and the person desiring to employ the vessel (char- terer); sets forth the terms of the arrangement, such as duration of agreement, freight rate and ports involved in the trip. 
Charter, Bareboat  A charter where the owner provides his ship to the Charterer who then provides his own officers and crew and operates the vessel as if it were a unit of his own fleet. Hire is usually paid on a daily rate, monthly in advance, and the owner retains rights 
Charter, Time  The chartering of a vessel for a fixed period of time with the vessel delivering and re-delivering at agreed dates and at agreed zones or places though usually with an option to the Charterer to extend the period of charter. It is really a contract for t 
Charter, Trip  A contract where the vessel has specific beginning and end ports but where the route and time taken may vary. 
Charterer  A person or firm who enters into a contract with a shipowner for the transportation of cargo or passengers for a stipulated period of time, i.e. a shipowner's customer 
Chartering  Commercial leasing of a vessel or space on a vessel. 
Chassis  A frame with wheels and container locking devices in order to secure the container for movement. 
ChE inhibitor  Cholinesterase inhibitor. A substance which produces inhibition of the cholinesterase group of enzymes, that play a vital role in nerve impulse transmission and other biological functions. Also known as anticholinesterase. 
Chem  Chemical 
Chemical Carrier  see PARCEL TANKER 
Chemical intermediate  A chemical intermediate is any substance generated by one step in a synthetic process and used for the succeeding step. 
Chemical oxygen demand  When organic materials are not easily degraded by microorganisms, strong oxidizing agents (e.g., potassium permanganate) are used to enhance oxidation. COD is thus measured instead of BOD (see BOD). COD values will be larger than BOD values. 
Chemical reaction  A chemical process in which substances are changed into different substances. Chemical reactions are manifested by the disappearance of properties characteristic of the starting materials and the appearance of new properties that distinguish the products. Examples of chemical reactions include burning of wood, fermentation of crops to make alcohol, tarnishing of silver, digestion of food and the synthesis of polystyrene plastics. 
Chemical Refining  Refers particularly to the removal of free fatty acids by alkali. The alkali used is usually sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) or sodium carbonate (soda ash), either singly or in combination. One novel chemical refining technique uses aqueous ammonia as the alkali. 
Chemical Tank Barge, non propelled  A non propelled tank barge for the carriage of chemicals 
Chemical Tanker  A tanker built to comply with either the International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (IBC Code) or the Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (BCH Code) 
Chemical Tanker Barge, propelled  An self propelled tanker barge for the bulk carriage of chemical cargoes, lube oils, vegetable/animal oils and other chemicals as defined in the International Bulk Chemical Code 
Chemical Tanker, Inland Waterways  A tanker for the bulk carriage of chemical cargoes, lube oils, vegetable/animal oils and other chemicals as defined in the International Bulk Chemical Code which is not suitable for trading in open waters. Tanks are coated with suitable materials which ar 
Chemical/Products Tank Barge, non propelled  A non propelled tank barge for the carriage of chemicals or oil products 
Chemical/Products Tanker  A chemical tanker additionally capable of the carriage of clean petroleum products 
Chemical/Products Tanker Barge, propelled  An self propelled chemical tanker barge additionally capable of the carriage of clean petroleum products 
Chemical/Products Tanker, Inland Waterways  A tanker for the bulk carriage of chemical cargoes, lube oils, vegetable/animal oils and other chemicals as defined in the International Bulk Chemical Code or Petroleum Products which is not suitable for trading in open waters.  
CHINPO  China Sea, Indian and Pacific Oceans 
Chlorides  Chlorine-containing compounds. The oil trade pays most attention to these substances when discussing naphtha. Reformers need a specific amount of chloride on their catalyst to perform properly, any more or any less amounts to poison. Naphtha feedstock containing any significant amount of chlorides upsets the delicate balance and reduces reformat yield. 
Chlorine  Chlorine, an inorganic chemical that can be obtained both naturally and synthetically, has a huge variety of uses, as a disinfectant and purifier, in plastics and polymers, solvents, agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals, as well as an intermediate in manufacturing other organic and inorganic substances. Chlorine is also used worldwide to purify water supplies as the ultimate defense against waterborne microbiological infection. 
Chlorobenzene  A colorless, liquid organic compound used as a solvent and starting material for the manufacture of other organic compounds, such as phenol. 
Chloroethylene  See Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) 
Chlorophyll  A natural, green colouring agent vital to a plant's photosynthesis process which is removed from vegetable oils through bleaching and refining processes. 
CHN  China 
Chock  A piece of wood or other material placed at the side of cargo to prevent rolling or moving sideways. 
Chock-a-Block  Meaning something is filled to capacity or over loaded. If two blocks of rigging tackle were so hard together they couldn't be tightened further, it was said they were "Chock-a-Block". 
Cholesterol  Cholesterol is one of a class of compounds known as sterols. It is an important component in animal tissues and cell membranes but found only in trace amounts in plant tissues. While many vegetable oils are known to contain traces of cholesterol, the amount is much less than in animal fats. Vegetable oils mainly contain other members of the sterol class. 
CHOPT  Charterers Option (As opposed to owner's option) 
Chromatography  Chromatography is a separation process used to analyse mixtures. The mixture, dissolved in a mobile phase, is contacted with a stationary phase, usually a fine powder. The components of the mixture are adsorbed or retained by the stationary phase to varying extents, depending on the degree of chemical affinity between them. Continual washing of the stationary phase with the original solvent or with a sequence of solvents, washes out the components of the mixture in turn. Various types of chromatography are used. Liquid chromatography involves passing a solution of the mixture through a column of solid adsorbent, or of an inert solid coated with a second immiscible liquid. Gas-liquid chromatography uses a gas as the mobile solvent and is usually carried out at a high temperature so that the components of the mixture are also gaseous. Thin layer chromatography is a form of liquid chromatography in which the solid adsorbent is formed in a thin layer on glass or other flat support. 
Chronic  A long time period of action in weeks, months, or years 
Chronic Effects of Overexposure  The adverse effects that develop slowly over a long period of time or upon repeated prolong exposure to a hazardous material without implying a degree of severity 
Chronic toxicity  Effects resulting from repeated exposure to a material for the lifespan of the species, or the greater part thereof. 
CHRTS  Charterers 
CHRTS or CHTRS  Charterers 
CHS  Continuous Survey of Hull 
CI  Cost and Insurance: A price that includes the cost of the goods, the marine insurance and all transportation charges except the ocean freight to the named point of destination. 
CI or CLS  Clause 
CIA  UK Chemical Industries Association 
CIF  Cost, Insurance and Freight (named port of destination)
Exactly the same as CFR except that the seller must in addition procure and pay for the insurance. Maritime transport only.

The four rules defined by Incoterms 2010 for international trade where transportation is entirely conducted by water are: FAS, FOB, CFR, CIF 
CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight) (...Named Place of Destination)  A Term of Sale where the seller has the same obligations as under the CFR but also has to procure marine insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss or damage to the goods during the carriage. The seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premium. The CIF term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. 
CIF (Named Port)  Cost, Insurance, Freight (Named Port). Same as C&F or CFR except seller also provides insurance to named destination. 
CIF&C  Price includes commission as well as CIF. 
CIF&E  Cost, insurance, freight and exchange 
CIFCI  Cost, insurance, freight, commission and interest 
CIFFO  Cost, insurance, freight, and free out 
CIFI&E  Cost, insurance, freight, interest and exchange 
CIFLT  Cost, insurance and freight, London terms 
CIM  International Convention Concerning the Carriage of Goods by Rail 
CINET  International Committee of Textile Care 
CIP  Carriage and Insurance Paid to (named place of destination)
The containerized transport/multimodal equivalent of CIF. Seller pays for carriage and insurance to the named destination point, but risk passes when the goods are handed over to the first carrier.

Incoterms 2010 
CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid To) (...Named Place of Destination)  A Term of Sale which means the seller has the same obligations as under CPT, but with the addition that the seller has to procure cargo insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage. The seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premium. The buyer should note that under the CIP term the seller is required to obtain insurance only on minimum coverage. The CIP term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. 
CIRFS  Comité International de la Rayonne et des Fibers Synthétiques (International Rayon and Synthetic Fibers Committee) 
CIRR  Commercial Interest Reference Rate 
CIS  The term applied to a geometric isomer of an unsaturated fatty acid where the hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon atoms comprising the double bond are on the same side of the carbon chain. 
CIS  Commonwealth of Independent States 
CKD  Completely or Cars knocked down 
CL  Carload or Containerload 
Claim  A demand made upon a transportation line for payment on account of a loss sustained through its alleged negligence. 
Class  Classification society which has inspected and certified the vessel from construction, launch and periodically throughout a vessel''s trading life, including re-classification after any incident of grounding, stranding or collision. 
Class 1 [Deck]  Master or Captain: Entitles the holder to act as Master on a ship of any size, with unlimited trading range. 
Class 1 [Engineer]  Chief Engineer: Entitles the holder to act as Chief Engineer on a ship of any power. 
Class 2 [Deck]  1st Mate, Chief Mate or Chief Officer: Entitles the holder to act as Chief Mate on a ship of any size with unlimited trading or may entitle the holder to act as Master on a ship but with restrictions on size or trading area. 
Class 2 [Engineer]  2nd Engineer: Entitles the holder to sail as Second Engineer on a ship of any power but may also entitle the holder to act as Chief Engineer on a ship with a restriction on power. 
Class 3 [Deck]  2nd Mate: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of a navigational watch on a ship of any size with unlimited trading but may also entitle the holder to act as Chief Mate, or possibly Master, on a ship but with restrictions on size or trading area. 
Class 3 [Engineer]  3rd Engineer: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of an engineering watch on a ship of any power but may also entitle the holder to act as Second Engineer, or possibly Chief Engineer, on a ship with a restriction on power. 
Class 4 [Deck]  3rd Mate: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of a navigational watch on any ship. 
Class 4 [Engineer]  4th Engineer: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of an engineering watch on a ship of any power. 
Classification  A publication, such as Uniform Freight Classification (railroad) or the National Motor Freight Clas- sification (motor carrier), that assigns ratings to various articles and provides bill of lading descriptions and rules. 
Classification Rating  The designation provided in a classification by which a class rate is determined. 
Classification Society  An organization maintained for the surveying and classing of ships so that insurance underwriters and others may know the quality and condition of the vessels offered for insurance or employment. See also ABS, BV, DNV, LR and NK. 
Classification Yard  A railroad yard with many tracks used for assembling freight trains. 
Clastogen  A substance capable of causing structural injury to chromosomes. 
Clayton Act  An anti–trust act of the U.S. Congress making price discrimination unlawful. 
CLC  International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage 1969/1984 (Certificate of Insurance) 
Clean  Unleaded, when used to describe motor gasoline or blendstock. 
Clean Ballast  Ballast contained in cargo tanks that have been COW'd and thoroughly water washed. It may be discharged to sea and meets MARPL requirements. 
Clean Bill of Health  A certificate signed by a port authority attesting that no contagious disease existed in the port of departure and none of crew were infected with a disease at the time of sailing. Shore-side, it means in good shape.. 
Clean Bill Of Lading  A bill of lading issued by a carrier declaring that the goods have been received in an appropriate condition, without the presence of defects. The product carrier will issue a clean bill after thoroughly inspecting the packages for any damage, missing quantities or deviations in quality. 
Clean fuels  So-called clean fuels are among the instruments introduced by EU Member States to combat air pollution problems arising from increases in road transport. See Auto-Oil Programme. 
Cleaning in Transit  The stopping of articles, such as peanuts, etc., for cleaning at a point between the point of origin and destination. 
Clear Point  The clear point is the temperature at which a fat sample in a closed capillary tube or a U-tube becomes completely clear on warming. 
Clear the Deck  One of the things done in preparation for battle. Current usage similar to "Batten down the hatches".. 
Clearance Limits  The size beyond which cars or loads cannot use bridges, tunnels, etc. 
Cleat  A strip of wood or metal used to afford additional strength, to prevent warping, or to hold in place. 
Climate change  The term "climate change" is used to imply a significant change from one climatic condition to another. Sometimes, climate change is used synonymously with the term global warming; scientists however, tend to use the term in the wider sense to also include natural changes in climate.  
Clingage  Material which adheres to the surface of tank walls and structures, both horizontal and vertical, within empty and part empty tanks, other than bottom surfaces. 
Clip–On  Refrigeration equipment attachable to an insulated container that does not have its own refrigeration unit. 
Close Quarters  In the 17th century the barriers that sailors laid across a ship’s deck in order to provide a safe haven from the enemy were called close-fights. By the mid 18th century that confined defensive space became called ‘close quarters’, i.e. close dwellings. This eventually came to mean ‘near enough to to be able to fight hand to hand’. 
Closed Operations  The procedure to prevent the release of cargo vapours at deck level on vessels during loading, ballasting and discharging. This is essential when handling toxic, volatile or noxious cargoes to prevent injury to personnel and risk of ignition. "Closed Ope 
Cloud Point  The cloud point is the temperature at which the oil begins to cloud resulting from crystallisation under controlled cooling. The cloud point is related to the unsaturation of the oil. In general, the higher the unsaturation of an oil, the lower will be its cloud point. 
Cloud point  The temperature where wax crystals begin to appear in a cooled hydrocarbon mixture. This quality consideration, usually applied to gasoil, indicates how cold the air must become to make a stream form solids which block filters halting fuel delivery. Cloud point of gasoil resembles freezing point of kerosene. 
CM  Centimeter 
CMF  Composite Meter Factor 
CMI  Committee Maritime International 
CMID  Common Marine Inspection Document 
CMO  Common Market Organization 
CMPL  Completed 
CMPS  Centimeters per second 
CMR  Convention on the Contract for International Carriage of Goods by Road 
CMS  Continuous Survey of Machinery 
CNG  Compressed Natural Gas 
CNG Tanker  A tanker for the bulk carriage of Compressed Natural Gas. Cargo remains in gaseous state but is highly compressed 
CNR  Charterers not reported; Charter not reported 
CO  Cargo oil; Case oil; Country of origin 
Co-products  substances made in one processing unit at the same time. A lot of refining hardware, especially crackers, cannot help making an assortment of hydrocarbons. The industry uses "co product" when it does not want to designate one material a plant's 
CO2  Carbon Dioxide. A colorless, non-poisonous gas that is a normal part of the ambient air. Carbon dioxide is formed in combustion of fossil fuel and carbon-containing materials, in fermentation, and in respiration of animals and employed by plants in the photosynthesis of carbohydrates. 
CO2 Tanker  A tanker for the bulk carriage of liquefied carbon dioxide 
COA  Contract of Affreightment: A cargo transportation arrangement whereby the owner agrees to transportation of a specified quantity of cargo over a set period of time in a vessel or series of vessels for the Charterer. It consists of the base terms of agre 
COA  Contract of affreightment. An arrangement between a ship owner and a charterer for the carriage of a certain amount of specified grade or grades of cargo on named routes over a period of time. Owners may use any suitable ships at their disposable to meet the contract's requirements. 
COACP  Contract of Affreightment Charter Party 
Coal  A black or brownish black solid, combustible carbon-rich substance formed by the partial decomposition of vegetable matter without access to air. Coal is one of the most important of the primary fossil fuels. It is indispensable to life and constitutes humankind's main source of energy. 
Coal tar  Coal tar is a principal liquid product resulting from the carbonization of coal, i.e. the heating of coal in the absence of air at temperatures ranging from about 900º to 1,200ºC (1,650º to 2,200ºF). Many commercially important compounds are derived from coal tar, such as dyestuffs and pigments. 
Coal/Oil Mixture Tanker  A tanker for the bulk carriage of a cargo of coal and oil mixed as a liquid and maintained at high temperatures 
Coast Guard-AWO Safety Partnership  The Coast Guard-AWO Safety Partnership, the first formal industry-Coast Guard partnership of its kind, has launched more than 25 quality action teams that address the most pressing industry safety issues. The Partnership is responsible for improving safety and training throughout the tug and barge industry's operations. 
Coastal  Smallest tankers and are generally used in coastal waters requiring a shallow draft. (3,001 dwt - 10,000 dwt approx ) 
Coastal amenity  Beach, mudflat, wharf, boardwalk or any other feature of the coastline considered of public value 
Coastal Waters  an area designated as such by the Administration and where this is not so designated it means an area not more than 20 miles from a safe refuge. 
Coastwise  Water transportation along the coast. 
COB  Cargo On Board or Close of Business 
COBLDN  Closing Of Business LoDoN 
COC  Certificate of Compliance means a certificate issued by the Coast Guard to a foreign flag vessel after it is examined and found to comply with regulations in this chapter. 
Cocoa Butter  The seed fat of ""Theobroma Cacao"", a small tree growing in tropical climates. Normally the cocoa beans are fermented and roasted to develop the desirable cocoa flavour. The beans are then milled to produce cocoa mass. Pressing of the cocoa mass gives cocoa butter. A lower quality of cocoa butter can be obtained by solvent extraction of the solid residues of the press. 
Cocoa Butter Equivalent  Fats which behave like cocoa butter in all respects and are able to mix with cocoa butter in any proportion without altering the melting, rheological and processing characteristics of cocoa butter in all types of formulation. These fats have the physico-chemical characteristics of cocoa butter. There is no 100% equivalent available in the market. 
Cocoa Butter Substitute  Fats which have a very limited compatibility with cocoa butter as mixing with cocoa butter adversely affects the rheological, melting and processing characteristics of the product. These fats on their own and also with a limited amount of cocoa butter have melting and rheological properties similar to cocoa butter. The degree of compatibility of these fats with cocoa butter and their melting characteristics determine their quality and hence their price. A good quality CBS is hard at ambient temperature, has the sharp melting characteristics of cocoa butter and has some degree of compatibility with cocoa butter and/or cocoa butter-milk fat blends. CBS are mainly used to make imitation products where the fat phase mainly consists of these fats. They are generally based on palm kernel oil or hydrogenated non-lauric fat products. CBS are also sometimes called Cocoa Butter Alternatives (CBA). 
Coconut Oil  Coconut oil is the oil obtained from copra - dried coconut meat. An edible oil, coconut oil is distinguished from other edible oils by its high content of short chain saturated acids (predominantly lauric) and its low unsaturated acid content. Susceptible to hydrolysis, coconut oil rapidly develops a characteristic odour and flavour, often described as soapy. 
COD  Cash on delivery : Financial transaction wherein the payment for goods/services is done at the time of delivery/execution rather than in advance. 
Codex Alimentarius  A Commission operating under the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations/World Health Organisation (FAO/WHO) auspices, which has the task of preparing model standards and codes of practice for edible products and for food processes. It operates through a series of Commodity Committees, which have a wide international membership. Nations which have formally acceded to the Commission undertake to adopt Codex standards in their national legislature. The elaboration of each standard is carried out in a series of eleven formal steps involving approval by member governments. 
COE  Certificate of Entry 
COF  Certificate of Fitness 
COFC  Container On Flat Car 
COFFERDAM  Void space in a vessel to separate cargo tanks from each other or from the engine room 
COFR  Certificate of Financial Responsibility (OPA 90) 
COFR/CA  Certificate of Financial Responsibility (OPA 90) for California 
COGS  Cost of Goods Sold : Aka Direct Costs, the sum of all expenditures for materials and labour to produce a product or provide a service. 
COGSA  Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 
COH  Cuba, Orinoco River and Haiti 
Coiled  Tankers fitted with tubes which carry hot water or steam through viscous cargoes, such as heavy fuel oil and certain crudes, to keep them fluid. 
Coke  solid, almost hydrogen-free carbon made on purpose in fuel oil destruction units called cokers or inescapably in other processing hardware. Coke forms on the catalyst in cat crackers and in the furnaces of ethylene plants. The coke manufactured intentionally may go to the graphite industry if it meets certain quality requirements. Otherwise it sells as solid fuel. The incidental accretions require removal to keep process units efficient. 
Coker  A thermal processing unit which cracks heavy refinery streams, such as vacuum still bottoms, into light products while reducing much of that feedstock to solid carbon. The liquids yielded by these units, often called coker naphtha and coker gasoil, usually pass through upgrading equipment on the way to finished fuels production. 
Coking  A thermal cracking process to break up large molecules into smaller ones with the generation of quantities of petroleum coke. 
Cold blender  see blender. European producers of motor gasoline who have no distillation or other refining equipment go by this name. They make their product by mixing purchased "cold" components. This term has the advantage over the simple "blender" used in the USA of emphatically distinguishing a certain group of low-capital motor fuel makers from the refinery-based gasoline producers who also, of course, blend streams to obtain their finished products. 
Cold filter plugging point  A measure of diesel fuel's suitability for use in cold weather. Usually called by its initials, CFPP, this specification reports the temperature where clotted wax stops fuel from passing through a test filter. CFFP goes beyond cloud point, which indicates where the cause of problems appears. It tells the fuel temperature where real trouble, like a stalled truck, happens. 
Cold zone  Area where the command post and support functions that are necessary to control the incident are located. This is also referred to as the clean zone or support zone in other documents. (NFPA 472) 
COLIPA  Comité de Liaison des Associations Européennes de l'Industrie de la Parfumerie, des Produits Cosmétiques et de Toilette (European Cosmetic, Toiletry and Perfumery Association) 
Collecting  A bank that acts as an agent to the seller’s bank (the presenting bank). The collecting bank assumes no responsibility for either the documents or the merchandise. 
Collection  A draft drawn on the buyer, usually accompanied by documents, with complete instructions concerning processing for payment or acceptance. 
collision  when two moving vessels strike each other 
Colonial grade  Light petroleum product which conforms to one of the specifications of Colonial Pipeline Company. 
Colonial pipeline  The on-land pipeline system connecting US Gulf Coast refineries to Southeast and Atlantic Coast markets. The main artery runs from Deer Park, Texas, to Linden, NJ. It has the effective capability to carry roughly 2.1 million barrels per day of clean products, including gasolines, home heating oils, diesel fuels and kerosenes. The system serves more than 280 petroleum-marketing terminals in thirteen states. Specifications required to move motor gasoline and No. 2 oil through the Colonial pipeline have become the quality standard for cargoes of these products imported on the US East Coast. Transporting a gallon of gasoline from Houston, Texas, to the New York harbor area via the Colonial pipeline costs about 2.3 cents. Moving product through roughly 1,550 miles of pipeline typically takes three to four weeks. 
Color  A spectrum which extends from absolutely colorless (usually described as water white) to dirty (black and opaque). This property only pertains usefully to light refined products and gas liquids. It makes a handy indicator of contamination or poor distillation for very pale substances such as naphtha and undyed motor gasoline. The industry uses several scales to report color including Saybolt and ASTM. 
Color  Most oil products are preferred as colourless as possible. In the oils and fats trade, the colour of oils is usually measured by the Lovibond Comparator. Alternatively, a spectrophotometer may be used to record the variation of light absorbence over the visible wavelength region of the spectrum. 
COLREGS  International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972 as amended (IMO) 
Column Chromatography  This is a laboratory technique by which two or more substances in a mixture are separated due to their differential affinities for a solid adsorbent. The adsorbent is filled into a column and a solution of the mixture is washed down the column with solvent. Individual components are washed out in sequence according to their molecular size and the type and number of polar functional groups in them. Column chromatography is often used to separate triglycerides on a quantitative basis from the other components in oils and fats. The adsorbent most commonly used is silicic acid (silica gel). 
Combination carriers  Vessels fitted to transport more than one type of cargo. The petroleum industry uses a good-sized fleet of OBO's, ships which transport dry cargo or oil. 
Combination Carriers  Ships designed to carry either a liquid cargo or a dry cargo on different voyages. This concept was developed to shorten ballast voyages. 
Combination Carriers (O/O)  Ore Oil (O/O) carriers have twin longitudinal bulkheads (similar to a conventional tanker) but have been additionally equipped with large deck hatches and strengthened double bottoms in way of the centre cargo tanks. This arrangement allows dry bulk carg 
Combination Carriers (OBO)  Oil Bulk Ore (OBO) carriers have a large central hold similar to a conventional dry bulk carrier but are also equipped to operate as an oil tanker. The large cargo "hold" (as opposed to a cargo "tank") means that lighter cargo such as grain etc. can be c 
Combination Export Manager  A firm that acts as an export sales agent for more than one non–competing manufacturer. 
Combination Passenger and Cargo Vessels  Ships with a capacity for 13 or more passengers and any form of cargo or freight. 
Combination Rate  A rate made up of two or more factors, separately published. 
Combined Carriers  Designed to transport both liquid and dry bulk cargoes. If both are carried simultaneously, they are segregated in separate holds and tanks. Combined carriers require special design and are expensive. They were prevalent in the 1970s, but their numbers have dwindled since 1990. 
COMBO  Combination Carrier 
Combustible liquid  Liquids which have a flash point greater than 60.5°C (141°F) and below 93°C (200°F). U.S. regulations permit a flammable liquid flashing between 38°C (100°F) and 60.5°C (141°F) to be reclassed as a combustible liquid. 
Command Vessel  A naval vessel used as a command centre for military operations 
Commercial Invoice  Represents a complete record of the transaction between exporter and importer with regard to the goods sold. Also reports the content of the shipment and serves as the basis for all other documents relating to the shipment. 
Commercial Management  Service where a hired agent operates a ship and receives a fee in return. 
Commercial Transport Vessel  Any ship which is used primarily in commerce:
(1) For transporting persons or goods to or from any harbor(s) or port(s) or between places within a harbor area;
(2) In connection with the construction, change in construction, servicing, mainte- nance, repair, loading, unloading, movement, piloting, or salvaging of any other ship or vessel. 
Commodity  Article shipped. For dangerous and hazardous cargo, the correct commodity identification is critical. 
Commodity Rate  A rate published to apply to a specific article or articles. 
Common Carrier  A transportation company which provides service to the general public at published rates. 
Common Law  Law that derives its force and authority from precedent, custom and usage rather than from statutes, particularly with reference to the laws of England and the United States. 
COMP  Completing 
Company Security Officer  Is the person designated by the company for ensuring that a ship security assessment is carried out and that a ship security plan is developed, submitted for approval and thereafter implemented and maintained for liaison with port facility security officers and the ship security officer. 
Compatibility  The suitable of two or more residues for blending. Some stocks--certain visbroken resides and hydrotreated bottoms, for instance--do not combine well enough to yield stable fuel oils. 
Complex Triglyceride  A triglyceride where one or two fatty acid structures differ from the third fatty acid. 
Component  One part of a blend. The word most commonly names streams combined to make motor gasoline. In that usage, it serves as short version of "mogas component". Though not used casually, "gasoil component," “heavy fuel oil component" and similar designations make perfect sense. 
Compound  A compound (or molecule) is a combination of two or more chemical elements (atoms) held together by chemical bonds. 
Compulsory Ship  Any ship which is required to be equipped with radiotelecommunication equipment in order to comply with the radio or radio-navigation provisions of a treaty or statute to which the vessel is subject. 
COMS  Commissions 
COMSAR  Sub-Committee on Radiocommunications and Search and Rescue 
CONCAWE  The Oil Companies' European Organization for Environment, Health and Safety 
Concealed Damage  Damage that is not evident from viewing the unopened package. 
CONCS  Concentrates 
Condensate  Natural gas liquids heavier than butane. The term condensates commonly covers two quite different kinds of streams: natural gasolines and heavy condensates. Natural gasolines come from LPG or LNG plants. They have properties similar to naphthas. Heavy condensates resemble very light crude oils. Sometimes called field condensates, they come from gasoil separation plants which process the raw stream from a gas field. Since they come as a by-product of gas production, much as associated gas comes as a by-product of crude production, associated crude suits them as a description. 
CONF  Confidential 
Confectionary Fats  Fats used for the manufacture of sugar and/or chocolate based confectionery products. These fats generally have sharp melting behaviour, having a very low solid fat content at body temperature. The physico-chemical properties of these fats and hence, their formulation, depend on the particular application and processing involved. 
Conference  An association of ship owners operating in the same trade route who operate under collective condi- tions and agree on tariff rates. 
Confirmed Letter of Credit  A letter of credit, issued by a foreign bank, whose validity has been confirmed by a domestic bank. An exporter with a confirmed letter of credit is assured of payment even if the foreign buyer or the foreign bank defaults 
Confirming Bank  The bank that adds its confirmation to another bank’s (the issuing bank’s) letter of credit and promises to pay the beneficiary upon presentation of documents specified in the letter of credit. 
Conjugated Fatty Acids  Polyunsaturated fatty acids exhibiting pairs of unsaturated carbons not separated by at least one saturated carbon. 
Conjunctoblepharitis  Inflammation of the conjuctiva and eyelids 
Connecting Carrier  A carrier which has a direct physical connection with, or forms a link between two or more carriers. 
Connecting Carrier Agreement  A connecting carrier agreement is a contract between the originating carrier and a second party, where the second party agrees to carry goods to a final destination on a through Billof Lading. 
Conradson carbon (ConCarbon)  A measurement of hydrocarbon mixtures tendency to leave carbon deposits (coke) when burned as fuel or subjected to intense heat in a processing unit such as a catalytic cracker. The ConCarbon test involves destructive distillation -subjection to high temperature which causes cracking, coking, and drives off any volatile hydrocarbons produced--and weighing the residue which remains. A somewhat similar test, Ramsbottom carbon, also measures mixtures tendency to form coke. For reasons of laboratory convenience, analysts ordinarily restrict the Ramsbottom method to hydrocarbons which flow 90 C. To obtain a useful indication of carbon residue formation by light distillates, such as high-speed diesel, the industry often measures coke formation by the last 10 percent of the material to boil. This technique goes by names such as "ConCarbon residue on 10 percent bottoms." 
CONS  Consumption 
CONSEC  Consecutive 
Consignee  A person or company to whom commodities are shipped. 
Consignee Mark  A symbol placed on packages for identification purposes; generally a triangle, square, circle, etc. with letters and/or numbers and port of discharge. 
Consignment  (1) A stock of merchandise advanced to a dealer and located at his place of business, but with title remaining in the source of supply.
(2) A shipment of goods to a consignee. 
Consignor  A person or company shown on the bill of lading as the shipper. 
Consolidation  Cargo containing shipments of two or more shippers or suppliers. Containerload shipments may be consolidated for one or more consignees, often in containerload quantities. 
Consolidator  A person or firm performing a consolidation service for others. The consolidator takes advantage of lower full carload (FCL) rates, and passes on the savings to shippers. 
Construction Differential Subsidy  A program whereby the U.S. government attempted to offset the higher shipbuilding cost in the U.S. by paying up to 50% of the difference between cost of U.S. and non–U.S. construction. The differ- ence went to the U.S. shipyard. It is unfunded since 1982. 
Consul  A government official residing in a foreign country who represents the interests of her or his country and its nationals. 
Consular Declaration  A formal statement describing goods to be shipped; filed with and approved by the consul of the country of destination prior to shipment. 
Consular Invoice  A document, certified by a consular official, is required by some countries to describe a shipment. Used by Customs of the foreign country, to verify the value, quantity and nature of the cargo. 
Consular Visa  An official signature or seal affixed to certain documents by the consul of the country of destina- tion. 
Consumption Entry (CE)  The process of declaring the importation of foreign–made goods into the United States for use in the United States. 
CONT  Continent or Europe 
Container  A truck trailer body that can be detached from the chassis for loading into a vessel, a rail car or stacked in a container depot. Containers may be ventilated, insulated, refrigerated, flat rack, vehicle rack, open top, bulk liquid or equipped with interior devices. A container may be 20 feet, 40 feet, 45 feet, 48 feet or 53 feet in length, 8’0” or 8’6” in width, and 8’6” or 9’6” in height. 
Container Barge, propelled  A self propelled cargo vessel with boxed holds fitted with fixed cellular guides for the carriage of containers 
Container Booking  Arrangements with a steamship line to transport containerized cargo. 
Container Freight Station  See CFS. 
Container Load  A load sufficient in size to fill a container either by cubic measurement or by weight. 
Container Manifest  Document showing contents and loading sequence, point of origin, and point of destination for a container. Vessels are required by law to carry such a document for each container carried. 
Container Pool  An agreement between parties that allows the efficient use and supply of containers. A common supply of containers available to the shipper as required. 
Container Security Initiative (CSI)  A U.S. cargo security program whereby containerized cargoes destined for the United States may be inspected on a selective basis at many foreign ports before loading on a vessel. As of October 2007, there were 51 approved ports. A multinational program, aligned with the President’s “Strategy for Homeland Security”, that extends the United States’ zone of security by pre–screening containers that pose a potential security risk before they leave foreign ports for U.S. seaports. 
Container Ship (Fully Cellular with Ro-Ro Facility)  A container ship with the additional capability to be loaded and unloaded by ro-ro access to a limited portion of the cargo space 
Container Ship (Fully Cellular)  A single deck cargo vessel with boxed holds fitted with fixed cellular guides for the carriage of containers 
Container Ship (Fully Cellular), Inland Waterways  A vessel designed for the transportation of fully cellular Containers. Not designed for operation in open sea 
Container Terminal  An area designated for the stowage of cargoes in container; usually accessible by truck, railroad and marine transportation. Here containers are picked up, dropped off, maintained and housed. 
Container Vessels  Ships equipped with permanent container cells that hold containers 
Container Yard (CY)  A materials–handling/storage facility used for completely unitized loads in containers and/or empty containers. Commonly referred to as CY. 
Container-on-Barge  Using deck barges, shipping by container-on-barge is becoming more prevalent as a means to mitigate truck traffic congestion on the nation's highways. 
Container/Ro-Ro Cargo Ship  A hybrid of a container ship and a ro-ro cargo ship in independent sections 
Containerizable Cargo  Cargo that will fit into a container and result in an economical shipment. 
Containerization  Stowage of general or special cargoes in a container for transport in the various modes. 
Contraband  Cargo that is prohibited. 
Contract  A legally binding agreement between two or more persons/organizations to carry out reciprocal ob- ligations or value. 
Contract Carrier  Any person not a common carrier who, under special and individual contracts or agreements, transports passengers or property for compensation. 
Contract deal  see TERM DEAL 
Control zones  Designated areas at dangerous goods incidents, based on safety and the degree of hazard. Many terms are used to describe control zones; however, in this guidebook, these zones are defined as the hot, warm, and cold zones. (NFPA 472) 
Controlled Atmosphere  Sophisticated, computer–controlled systems that manage the mixtures of gases within a container throughout an intermodal journey reducing decay. 
Conventional Day  CONVENTIONAL DAY shall mean a period of twenty-four (24) consecutive hours running from any identified time. Any part of a Conventional Day shall be counted pro-rata. 
Conventional Tanker  Crude tankers used for deep sea transportation of unrefined oil from producing countries to refineries, ranging in size from 55,000 to 500,000 deadweight tonnes. 
Conversion  Cracking molecules which boil above the threshold temperature into smaller ones which boil below it. Traditionally, the term applied to catalytic crackers. They convert oil which boils above 430 F to hydrocarbons which boil below that point. In other words, they convert gasoil to naphtha. The recent popularity of residue crackers has established another conversion standard around 720 F. This point marks the elevation of fuel oil to light products. Loosely, the term refers to any processing step which breaks molecules into pieces which boil at lower temperatures. 
Conversion  In the plastics industry, conversion is the processing of raw materials into usable forms, e.g. the conversion of plastic pellets into films or the conversion of films into food containers. The steps involved include compounding (the mixing together of various raw materials, e.g. polymers and additives), melting and extruding, shaping and solidifying. 
Convulsant  A material which causes seizures. 
COOP  Co-operation 
COP  Custom of the Port 
Copper-Bottomed  Copper-bottomed described ships that were fitted with copper plating on the underside of their hulls. The process was first used on ships of the British Navy in 1761 to defend their wooden planking against attack by Shipworms and to reduce infestations by barnacles. The method was successful in protecting ships’ timbers and in increasing speed and manoeuvrability and soon became widely used. Before long, "Copper-bottomed" began to be used figuratively to refer to anything that was certain and trustworthy. 
Copra  The fruit of the tree ""Cocos Nucifera"" is the well known coconut. The white meat of the coconut, when removed and dried to between 4% to 7% moisture, is called copra. Drying may be either by sun drying where the moisture is allowed to evaporate naturally or forced drying where the heat for drying is obtained by burning the empty shells. This last method causes an uptake of PAH's in the oil making it necessary to bleach with active carbon. 
Corn Oil  Corn oil is obtained from the germ of the corn (or maize) cob, the germ being separated as a byproduct from the manufacture of starch from corn. The corn oil is extracted from the germ and, after refining, it has a number of uses such as frying and as a good quality salad oil. It tends to be darker than refined rapeseed and soyabean oils and it may require dewaxing if it is used for bottling. 
Corner Posts  Vertical frame components fitted at the corners of the container, integral to the corner fittings and connecting the roof and floor structures. Containers are lifted and secured in a stack using the castings at the ends. 
Correspondent Bank  A bank that, in its own country, handles the business of a foreign bank. 
Corrosion  Physiochemical interaction between a metal and its environment that results in changes in the properties of the metal and which may lead to significant impairment of the function of the metal, the environment or technical system, of which these form a part 
Corrosion fatigue  Process involving conjoint corrosion and alternating straining of the metal, often leading to cracking 
Corrosion product  Substance formed as a result of corrosion 
Corrosive  Capable of causing erosive destruction of tissues. 
corrosive environment  Environment that contains one or more corrosive agents 
Corvette  A combat vessel smaller than a destroyer, often armed for antisubmarine operations 
Cost, Insurance and Freight (CIF)  Cost of goods, marine insurance and all transportation (freight) charges are paid to the foreign point of delivery by the seller. 
COSWP  MCA Code of Safe Working Practices 
COTANCE  European Federation of Tanneries and Leather Care in Europe 
COTP  Captain Of The Port (Coast Guard) 
Cottonseed Oil  Records show that cotton has been grown for nearly 3,000 years as a source of fibre to be spun and woven into textiles. The seed is a by-product which yields 20-24% of useful food oil. 
Countervailing Duty  An additional duty imposed to offset export grants, bounties or subsidies paid to foreign suppliers in certain countries by the government of that country for the purpose of promoting export. 
Couple  Ship Stability: A moment created by two equla forces exerted in opposite directions and along parallel lines. In transverse stability a couple is created by the forces of G and B acting parallel to each other in opposite direction 
Covered Bulk Cargo Barge, non propelled  A non propelled covered barge for the carriage of bulk cargoes 
COW  Crude Oil Washing: The operation carried out on crude oil ships as a statutory requirement under Marpol 73/78 to reduce the quantity of residual oil left in cargo tanks that will or might contain ballast. The operation is also employed to maximise the o 
COW  Crude oil wash. A cleaning technique used by some ships. They spray a few tons of crude around their tanks to rinse off the remains of previous cargoes. This method cannot make a dirty vessel clean. But it can do enough good to prevent excessive darkening of not particularly color-sensitive cargo. 
CP or C/P  Charter Party 
CPD  Charterers Pay Dues 
CPMA  Chemicals and Petrochemicals Manufacturers Association (India) 
CPP  Clean Petroleum Product 
CPR  Cardia-Pulmonary Respiration 
CPS  Compact Polystyrene 
CPT  Captain 
CPT  Carriage Paid To (named place of destination)
The seller pays for carriage. Risk transfers to buyer upon handing goods over to the first carrier.

Incoterms 2010 
CPT (Carriage Paid To) (...Named Place of Destination)  A Term of Sale which means the seller pays the freight for the carriage of the goods to the named destination. The risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time the goods have been delivered to the carrier, is transferred from the seller to the buyer when the goods have been delivered into the custody of the carrier. If subsequent carriers are used for the carriage to the agreed upon destination, the risk passes when the goods have been delivered to the first carrier. The CPT term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. 
CQD  Customary Quick Despatch 
CR  Current rate 
CR  Carrier’s risk 
CR  Compressor Room (OCIMF acronym) 
Cracked  Broken by a thermal or catalytic process. This term frequently describes an oil product which contains cracked components made by such a process. 
Cracked component  An ingredient in a hydrocarbon blend produced by a cracking process. The opposite of a virgin or straight-run component. Blends containing any cracked components do not qualify as straight-run. The presence of cracked components makes refinery streams unsuited for certain feedstock uses. The issue arises most frequently regarding heavy fuel oils. Companies buying such streams to produce catfeed want a virgin material containing no cracked components. 
Cracked cutters  Cycle oils used to reduce the sulfur content or, especially, the viscosity of fuel oil. 
Cracked fuel  Fuel oil containing molecules broken in a cracking unit. The term most frequently applies to residue. It distinguishes streams unsuitable for upgrading from straight-run material of interest as feedstock. 
Cracked naphtha  General term for any naphtha-range fraction produced by a molecule breaking process. The category includes cat gasoline from a catalytic cracker, visbroken naphtha from a visbreaker, and coker naphtha from a coking unit. In ordinary usage, this term signifies streams with a high olefin content. That custom discourages its application to hydrocrackate and pyrolysis gasoline, known, respectively, for their naphthenes and aromatics concentrations. 
Cracked Stock  see CRACKED COMPONENT. Cracking units produce cracked stocks such as cycle oils and cat naphthas used for blending finished products. 
Cracker  A processing unit which breaks molecular bonds, usually to produce lighter hydrocarbons with lower boiling points. Commercial crackers (cracking units) include cat crackers, hydrocrackers, thermal crackers, visbreakers, and stream crackers. 
Cracking  The process of breaking down large molecules of oil into smaller ones. When this process is achieved by the application of heat only, it is known as thermal cracking. If a catalyst is used as well it is known as catalytic cracking. It is known as hydrocracking if the catalytic process is conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere. Cracking causes molecular decomposition and recombination to produce a range of more useful base chemicals. 
Cracking-Cracker  The process of breaking down large molecules of oil into smaller ones. When this process is achieved by the application of heat only, it is known as thermal cracking. If a catalyst is used as well it is known as catalytic cracking. Cracking causes molecular decomposition and recombination to produce a range of more useful base chemicals. Cracking is the basic process taking place in crackers. 
Crane Platform, jack up  A jack up offshore crane platform 
Crane Platform, semi submersible  A semi submersible offshore crane platform 
Crane Pontoon  A pontoon with a jib crane 
Crane Ship  A vessel equipped with a large crane for lifting operations 
Crane Vessel, Naval Auxiliary  A naval auxiliary vessel constructed or adapted for crane operations, with limited cargo capability 
CRC  Cold Rolled Coils 
CRD  Current rate discharge 
Crevice corrosion  Localized corrosion associated with, and taking place in, or immediately around, a narrow aperture or clearance formed between the metal surface and another surface (metallic or non-metallic) 
Crew  The body of people manning a ship, excluding the master, officers and any passengers. 
Crew Boat  A vessel equipped for the transportation of crew to ships and/or installations 
Crew Boat, Naval Auxiliary  A naval auxiliary vessel for transporting crew 
Crew/Supply Vessel  A typically high speed vessel primarily for the transportation of crew to offshore facilities; may also have limited stores carriage capability on an open deck 
CRISTAL  Contract Regarding an Interim Settlement to Tanker Liability for Oil Pollution Damage 
CRL  Current rate of load 
CRN  Crane 
CRN or CRNS  Crane(s) 
CROB  Cargo Remaining on Board 
Cross Member  Transverse members fitted to the bottom side rails of a container, which support the floor. 
Crude Oil  Oil or condensates that have not undergone any refining processes. 
Crude Oil Tank Barge, non propelled  A non propelled tank barge for the carriage of crude oil 
Crude Oil Tanker  A tanker built to comply with Annex 1 of Marpol 73/78 for the carriage of oil and conforming to the requirements for the carriage of crude oil. 
Crude Vegetable Oil  Extracted vegetable oils which have had no further processing or refining except possibly that of being degummed or filtered, settled or both. 
Crude/Oil Products Tanker  A tanker for the bulk carriage of crude oil but also for carriage of refined oil products 
Cruise Ship, Inland Waterways  A vessel used for leisure cruising on rivers/lakes/canals, not suitable for open sea voyages. 
Cruiser  A combat vessel of medium tonnage with a long cruising radius and less armor and firepower than a battleship 
Cryogenic liquid  A refrigerated, liquefied gas that has a boiling point colder than -90°C (-130°F) at atmospheric pressure. 
Crystallization   A substance can exist in three states, namely gaseous, liquid and solid states. When a liquid is cooled sufficiently, it solidifies and the process is called crystallisation. Crystallisation is the formation of crystals from a melt or a solution. The process is used in both the preparation of triglycerides in the small scale and the fractionation of oleins and stearins in the large scale. 
CSC  International Convention for Safe Containers 
CSD  Closed shelter deck 
CSH  Cargo ship 
CSO  Company Security Officer 
CSR  Continues Synopsis Record 
CST  Abbreviation of centistoke. 
CT  Centre Tank (OCIMF acronym) 
CT  Chemical Tanker or Cargo Tank or Center Tank 
CT  Combined transport or Cubic Tonnage 
CTF  Carbon Task Force 
CTL  Constructive total loss 
CTO  Combined transport operator 
CTR  Container Fitted 
Cu  Cubic: A unit of volume measurement. 
Cube Out  When a container or vessel has reached its volumetric capacity before its permitted weight limit. 
Cubic Foot  1,728 cubic inches. A volume contained in a space measuring one foot high, one foot wide and one foot long. 
Cumene  Cumene is an aromatic derived from benzene and used in turn to produce polycarbonates, phenolic resins and essential healthcare products such as aspirin and penicillin. 
Curing  The chemical reaction that takes place after the mixing of 2 component paints which results in a chemically resistant film 
Customhouse  A government office where duties are paid, import documents filed, etc., on foreign shipments. 
Customhouse Broker  A person or firm, licensed by the treasury department of their country when required, engaged in entering and clearing goods through Customs for a client (importer). 
Customs  Government agency charged with enforcing the rules passed to protect the country’s import and ex- port revenues. 
Customs Bonded Warehouse  A warehouse authorized by Customs to receive duty–free merchandise. 
Customs Entry  All countries require that the importer make a declaration on incoming foreign goods. The importer then normally pays a duty on the imported merchandise. The importer’s statement is compared against the carrier’s vessel manifest to ensure that all foreign goods are properly declared. 
Customs Invoice  A form requiring all data in a commercial invoice along with a certificate of value and/or a certificate of origin. Required in a few countries (usually former British territories) and usually serves as a seller’s commercial invoice. 
Customs of the Port (COP)  A phrase often included in charter parties and freight contracts referring to local rules and practices which may impact upon the costs borne by the various parties. 
Customs–Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C–TPAT)  It is a voluntary supply chain security program, launched in November 2001 and led by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) which focuses on improving the security of private companies’ supply chains with respect to terrorism. In exchange for companies participation CBP will provide reduced inspections at the port of arrival, expedited processing at the border and penalty mitigation. 
Cut  To divide a hydrocarbon mixture into fractions by distillation. Also a name for the fractions obtained, as in kerosene cut or naphtha cut. 
Cut and Run  Most often thought to mean the cutting of an anchor line in an effort to make a quick getaway. Hard to imagine that many ship’s masters enjoyed routinely losing an anchor or two, so it is probably more likely referring to the practice of securing the sails of a square-rigged ship with rope yarns that could easily be cut away when a quick departure was necessary. 
Cut of his Jib  Warships many times had their foresails or jib sails cut thinly so that they could maintain point and not be blown off course. Upon sighting thin foresails on a distant ship a captain might not like the cut of his jib and would then have an opportunity to escape. 
Cut–Off Time  The latest time cargo may be delivered to a terminal for loading to a scheduled train or ship. 
Cutaneous Hazards  Chemicals which affect the skin. Signs and symptoms are defatting the skin, rashes, irritation 
Cutter (cutter stock)  A refinery stream used to thin a fuel oil or gasoil. Viscosity reduction and sulfur level adjustment provide most of the requirement for the cutter. 
Cutter stock  Diluent material used for tank washing, acting as a solvent or viscosity reducer to enable better recovery or ROB. 
Cutter Suction Dredger  A vessel equipped to obtain material from the sea bed by use of a cutter wheel, which loosens the material, and a suction pipe. The material may be carried on board, transferred to other vessels, pumped ashore or deposited elsewhere using a spray 
CVO  Certificate of value and origin 
CWA  Clean Water Act 
Cwt  Hundred weight 
CX  Cofferdam (OCIMF acronym) 
CY  Country yard 
Cycle oil  Cat cracking unit produced in the fuel oil or gasoil boiling range. The term light cycle oil generally describes products of this kind suitable for blending into diesel or home heating oil. Heavy cycle oil, accordingly, refers to the cat cracked material which boils at temperatures in the fuel oil range. 
Cyclohexane  Cyclohexane is an aromatic derived from benzene used as an intermediate to produce nylon. 
CYL  Cylinders